What is the Relevancy of Foreign Judgements in India Courts?
Welcome to our video discussing the relevance of foreign judgments in India. Have you ever wondered how judgments passed in other countries can impact our legal system? In this video, we’ll delve into the significance of foreign judgments and how they can influence Indian law.
As a part of the common law countries, India does not have any law restricting the constitutional court from following foreign judgments. In fact, foreign judgments provide a wider perspective on any law and offer a wealth of knowledge to the legal fraternity. With legal education becoming more globalized, students from different legal jurisdictions exchange ideas, and as they enter the legal profession, they bring with them their international knowledge and perspectives.
One of the most significant advantages of following foreign judgments is the exposure to different legal systems. For instance, Indian judges can look to judgments in countries like the United States, the United Kingdom, or Canada to understand how similar legal principles were applied in different contexts. This allows Indian judges to take a more holistic approach to legal decision-making, thereby enhancing the quality of justice delivered.
Moreover, foreign judgments can be particularly useful in interpreting ambiguous laws. In cases where a legal provision is unclear or can be interpreted in multiple ways, foreign judgments can provide valuable guidance in understanding how similar provisions were interpreted in other countries. For instance, the interpretation of the term ‘reasonable care’ in a tortious liability case can be more easily understood by referring to the judgments in countries where similar laws exist. However, it is important to note that foreign judgments cannot be blindly followed in India. For a foreign judgment to be recognized and enforced in India, it must pass the conclusiveness test under Section 13 of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (CPC). This means that the foreign judgment must meet certain criteria, such as being passed by a competent court, being final and conclusive, and not being in contravention of Indian laws or public policy.
Apart from the CPC, bilateral treaties between reciprocating countries can also govern the recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments. India has signed several such treaties with countries like the United Kingdom, the United States, and Japan, among others. These treaties lay down the conditions under which judgments passed in one country can be enforced in another. Another important factor to consider when following foreign judgments is the cultural context in which the judgment was passed. It is essential to understand the cultural, social, and political factors that influenced the judgment to apply it appropriately in the Indian context. For instance, a judgment passed in a country with a vastly different cultural and social background may not be applicable in India, where the legal system and cultural context are different.
In conclusion, the relevance of foreign judgments in India cannot be overstated. They offer a wider perspective on legal principles, help in interpreting ambiguous laws, and enhance the quality of justice delivered. However, it is important to ensure that the foreign judgment meets the criteria laid down in the CPC, and to consider the cultural context in which the judgment was passed. As India’s legal system continues to evolve and adapt, the relevance of foreign judgments is only set to increase.
So, if you want to understand how foreign judgments can impact the Indian legal system, watch this video till the end. We hope you’ll gain some knowledge from it. Don’t forget to share your thoughts in the comments section!