June 8, 2024

A witness in the Indian legal system is an individual who provides testimony or evidence in court or before a judicial authority regarding facts or events within their knowledge relevant to a legal proceeding. Witnesses play a crucial role in the administration of justice by presenting information, observations, or opinions based on their firsthand experiences to assist the court in determining the truth and resolving disputes. Witnesses may be called by the parties to the case or subpoenaed by the court to testify under oath or affirmation, subject to penalties for perjury or contempt of court for providing false or misleading testimony. Witnesses may testify orally in open court or through written affidavits, depositions, or examinations-in-chief, and they may be subject to cross-examination by opposing counsel to test the accuracy and credibility of their statements. Witnesses may include lay witnesses, who testify about facts or events within their personal knowledge, and expert witnesses, who provide specialized knowledge, opinions, or analysis relevant to the case based on their expertise or qualifications. Witnesses have a duty to tell the truth and cooperate with the court, and they may be protected from harassment, intimidation, or retaliation for their testimony. Witness testimony forms a vital part of the evidentiary record in legal proceedings, contributing to the resolution of disputes, the ascertainment of facts, and the attainment of justice in the Indian legal system.


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